Category Archives: vSphere 6.0

VVDs, Project Ice, vRNI & NSX – Summary Of My Breakout Sessions From Day 1 at VMworld 2016 US –

Capture

Quick post to summerise the sessions I’ve attended on day 1 at @VMworld 2016 and few interesting things I’ve noted. First up are the 3 sessions I had planned to attend + the additional session I managed to walk in to.

Breakout Session 1 – Software Defined Networking in VMware validated Designs

  • Session ID: SDDC7578R
  • Presenter: Mike Brown – SDDC Integration Architect (VMware)

This was a quick look at the VMware Validated Designs (VVD) in general and the NSX design elements within the SDDC stack design in the VVD. If you are new to VVD’s and are typically involved in designing any solutions using the VMware software stack, it is genuinely worth reading up on and should try to replicate the same design principles (within your solution design constraints) where possible. The diea being this will enable customers to deploy robust solutions that have been pre-validated by experts at VMware in order to ensure the ighest level of cross solution integrity for maximum availability and agility required for a private cloud deployment. Based on typical VMware PSO best practices, the design guide (Ref architecture doc) list out each design decision applicable to each of the solution components along with the justification for that decision (through an explanation) as well as the implication of that design decision. An example is given below

NSX VVD

I first found out about the VVDs during last VMworld in 2015 and mentioned in my VMworld 2015 blog post here. At the time, despite the annoucement of availability, not much content were actually avaialble as design documents but its now come a long way. The current set of VVD documents discuss every design, planning, deployment and operational aspect of the following VMware products & versions, integrated as a single solution stack based on VMware PSO best practises. It is based on a multi site (2 sites) production solution that customers can replicate in order to build similar private cloud solutions in their environments. These documentation set fill a great big hole that VMware have had for a long time in that, while their product documentation cover the design and deployment detail for individual products, no such documentaiton were available for when integrating multiple products and with VVD’s, they do now. In a way they are similar to CVD documents (Cisco Validated Designs) that have been in use for the likes of FlexPod for VMware…etc.

VVD Products -1

VVD Products -2

VVD’s generally cover the entire solution in the following 4 stages. Note that not all the content are fully available yet but the key design documents (Ref Architecture docs) are available now to download.

  1. Reference Architecture guide
    1. Architecture Overview
    2. Detailed Design
  2. Planning and preperation guide
  3. Deployment Guide
    1. Deployment guide for region A (primary site) is now available
  4. Operation Guide
    1. Monitoring and alerting guide
    2. backup and restore guide
    3. Operation verification guide

If you want to find out more about VVDs, I’d have a look at the following links. Just keep in mind that the current VVD documents are based on a fairly large, no cost barred type of design and for those of you who are looking at much smaller deployments, you will need to exercise caution and common sense to adopt some of the recommended design decisions to be within the appplicable cost constraints (for example, current NSX design include deploying 2 NSX managers, 1 integrated with the management cluster vCenter and the other with the compute cluster vCenter, meaning you need NSX licenses on the management clutser too. This may be an over kill for most as typically, for most deployments, you’d only deploy a single NSX manager integrated to the compute cluster)

As for the Vmworld session itself, the presenter went over all the NSX related design decisions and explained them which was a bit of a waste of time for me as most people would be able to read the document and understand most of those themselves. As a result I decided the leave the session early, but have downloaded the VVD documents in order to read throughly at leisure. 🙂

Breakout Session 2 – vRA, API, Ci Oh My!

  • Session ID: DEVOP7674
  • Presenters

vRA Jenkins Plugin

As I managd to leave the previous session early, I manage to just walk in to this session which had just started next door and both Kris and Ryan were talking about the DevOps best practises with vRealize Automation and vrealize Code Stream. they were focusing on how developpers who are using agile development that want to invoke infrastructure services can use these products and invoke their capabilities through code, rather than through the GUI. One of the key focus areas was the vRA plugin for Jenkins and if you were a DevOps person of a developper, this session content would be great value. if you can gain access to the slides or the session recordings after VMworld (or planning to attend VMworld 2016 Europe), i’d highly encourage you to watch this session.

Breakout Session 3 – vRealize, Secure and extend your data center to the cloud suing NSX: A perspective for service providers and end users

  • Session ID: HBC7830
  • Presenters
    • Thomas Hobika – Director, America’s Service Provider solutions engineering & Field enablement, vCAN, vCloud Proviuder Software business unit (VMware)
    • John White – Vice president of product strategy (Expedient)

Hosted Firewall Failover

This session was about using NSX and other products (i.e. Zerto) to enable push button Disaster Recovery for VMware solutions presented by Thomas, and John was supposed to talk about their involvement in designing this solution.  I didn’t find this session content that relevent to the listed topic to be honest so left failrly early to go to the blogger desks and write up my earlier blog posts from the day which I thought was of better use of my time. If you would like more information on the content covered within this sesstion, I’d look here.

 

Breakout Session 4 – Practical NSX Distributed Firewall Policy Creation

  • Session ID: SEC7568
  • Presenters
    • Ron Fuller – Staff Systems Engineer (VMware)
    • Joseph Luboimirski – Lead virtualisation administrator (University of Michigan)

Fairly useful session focusing about NSX distributed firewall capability and how to effectively create a zero trust security policy on ditributed firewall using vairous tools. Ron was talking about various different options vailablle including manual modelling based on existing firewall rules and why that could potentially be inefficient and would not allow customers to benefit from the versatality available through the NSX platform. He then mentioned other approaches such as analysing traffic through the use of vRealize Network Insight (Arkin solution) that uses automated collection of IPFIX & NetFlow information from thre virtual Distributed Switches to capture traffic and how that capture data could potentialy be exported out and be manipulated to form the basis for the new firewall rules. He also mentioned the use of vRealize Infrastructure Navigator (vIN) to map out process and port utilisation as well as using the Flow monitor capability to capture exisitng communication channels to design the basis of the distributed firewall. The session also covered how to use vRealize Log Insight to capture syslogs as well.

All in all, a good session that was worth attending and I would keep an eye out, especially if you are using / thinking about using NSx for advanced security (using DFW) in your organisation network. vRealize Network Insight really caught my eye as I think the additional monitoring and analytics available through this platform as well as the graphical visualisation of the network activities appear to be truely remarkeble (explains why VMware integrated this to the Cross Cloud Services SaS platform as per this morning’s announcement) and I cannot wait to get my hands on this tool to get to the nitty gritty’s.

If you are considering large or complex deployment of NSX, I would seriously encourage you to explore the additional features and capabilities that this vRNI solution offers, though it’s important to note that it is licensed separately form NSX at present.

vNI         vNI 02

 

Outside of these breakout sessions I attended and the bloggin time in between, I’ve managed to walk around the VM Village to see whats out there and was really interested in the Internet Of Things area where VMware was showcasing their IOT related solutions currently in R&D. VMware are currently actively developing an heterogeneous IOT platform monitoring soluton (internal code name: project Ice). The current version of the project is about partnering up with relevent IOT device vendors to develop a common monitoring platform to monitor and manage the various IOT devices being manufacured by various vendors in various areas. If you have a customer looking at IOT projects, there are opportunities available now within project Ice to sign up with VMware as a beta tester and co-develop and co-test Ice platform to perform monitoring of these devices.

An example of this is what VMware has been doing with Coca Cola to monitor various IOT sensors deployed in drinks vending machines and a demo was available in the booth for eall to see

IOT - Coke

Below is a screenshot of Project Ice monitoring screen that was monitoring the IOT sensors of this vending machine.   IOT -

The solution relies on an Open-Source, vendor neutral SDK called LIOTA (Little IOT Agent) to develop a vendor neutral agent to monitor each IOT sensor / device and relay the information back to the Ice monitoring platform. I would keep and eye out on this as the use cases of such a solution is endless and can be applied on many fronts (Auto mobiles, ships, trucks, Air planes as well as general consumer devices). One can argue that the IOT sensor vendors themselves should be respornsible for developping these mo nitoring agents and platforms but most of these device vendors do not have the knowledge or the resources to build such intelligent back end platforms which is where VMware can fill that gap through a partship.

If you are in to IOT solutions, this is defo a one to keep your eyes on for further developments & product releases. This solution is not publicly available as of yet though having spoken to the product manager (Avanti Kenjalkar), they are expecting a big annoucement within 2 months time which is totally exciting.

Some additional details can be found in the links below

Cheers

Chan

#vRNI #vIN #VVD # DevOps #Push Button DR # Arkin Project Ice # IOT #LIOTA

3. VMware vSphere 6.x – vCenter Server Appliance Deployment

<- Index page – VMware vSphere 6.x Deployment Process

In the previous article, we deployed an external PSC appliance and replaced it’s default root CA cert with a cert from an existing enterprise CA, such that every time VMCA assigns a cert to either vCenter or in turn, ESXi servers, it will have the full enterprise CA certificate chain rather than just vSphere’s cert chain.

Note the below design notes related to the vCenter server deployment illustrated here

  • Similar to PSC, vCenter server will also be deployed using the VMware appliance (VCSA)
  • A single vCenter instance is often sufficient with most requirements given that VMware HA will protect it from hardware failures.

Lets now quickly look at a typical deployment of the vCenter server (appliance)

Note: Deployment of vCenter server using the VCSA is somewhat identical to the earlier illustrated deployement of PSC, in that its the same appliance being deployed, and instead of selecting PSC mode, we are selecting the vCenter Server mode this time.

  1. Download the VMware vCSA appliance ISO from VMware and mount the ISO image on you workstation / jump host and launch the vcsa-setup.html file found on the root of the ISO drive. 1
  2. Now click install.                                                      2
  3. Accept EULA and click next                                                   3. Ack
  4. You can deploy the appliance directly to an ESXi host or deploy through a vCenter. Provide your target server details here with credentials.  2. ESXi
  5. Type the appliance’s VM name & root password for the appliance’s Linux OS. Make a note as you’d need this later. 3. Appliance
  6. Select the appropriate deployment type. We are deploying an external vCenter server here for an external PSC.          4. VCSA01
  7. We are now connecting the vCenter VCSA to the previously deployed PSC instance and the SSO details we configured. 5. Connect to PSC
  8. Select the appropriate vCenter server VCSA appliance size, based on the intended workload of the vCenter.   6. Size
  9. Select the destination datastore to deploy the vCSA appliance on  to   7. Datastore
  10. Now select the vCenter database type. I’m using PostgreSQL here (built-in) as this will now likely be the preferred choice for many enterprise customers as its decent enough to scale up to 10,000 VMs and you don’t have to pay for an SQL server license. Those handful of customers who have an existing Oracle DB server can use Oracle here too. 8. DB
  11. Now provide the IP & DNS details. Ensue you provide a valid NTP server and check that the time syncs properly from this source.
    1. Note here that you need to manualy create the DNS server entry (if you hadn’t done this already) for the VCSA appliance and ensure it resolves the name correctly to the IP used here, before proceeding any further..!9. Config
  12. Verify the settings and proceed to start deploying the appliance. 10. Config
  13. Deployment progress and completion                                                                            12. Progress 13. Completion

SSL Certificate verifications & Updates (Important)!!

We’ve already updated the PSC’s default root certificate with a Enterprise CA signed root certificate in a previous step (Section “Optional – Replace the VMCA root certificate as explained here). So when you add the vCenter appliance to the PSC (which we’ve already performed earlier in this article, all the relevant certificates are supposed to be automatically created and allocated by the VMCA on to the vCenter. However I’ve seen issues with this so just to be on the safe side, I recommend we  follow the rest of the steps involved in the KB article 2111219, under section “Replacing VMCA of the Platform Services Controller with a Subordinate Certificate Authority Certificate” as follows

  1. Replacing the vSphere 6.0 Machine SSL certificate with a VMware Certificate Authority issued certificate (2112279) – On the vCenter Server Appliance
  2. Replacing the vSphere 6.0 Solution User certificates with VMware Certificate Authority issued certificates (2112281) – On the vCenter Server Appliance
  3. If you use Auto Deploy, may want to consider applying the fix mentioned in the KB article 2123631. Otherwise, go the next task
  4. Follow the VMware KB 2109074 and
    1. Follow the listed “Task 0 – Validating the sslTrust Anchors for the PSC and vCenter” – This need to be tested on both the PSC appliance as well as the vCenter appliance as instructed.
    2. If the certificated don’t match, also follow the rest of the tasks as indicated
    3. Validating this here can save you lots of headache down the line…!!

 

That’s pretty much it for the deployment of the VCSA appliance in vCenter mode rather than the PSC mode.

Adding ESXi Servers to the vCenter server

Important note: If you decide to add the ESXi nodes to the vCenter straight away, please we aware of the fact that if the Enterprise subordinate certificate that replaced the VMCA root certificate has been valid for less than 24 hours, you CANNOT add any ESXi hosts as this is by design. See the KB2123386 for more information. In most enterprise deployments where the Enterprise subordinate certificate would have been likely issued few days in advance of the actual PSC & VCSA deployment, this would be a non issue but if you are one of those where you’ve obtained the cert from your Enterprise CA less than 24 hours ago, you need to wait before you can add ESXi servers to the vCenter server.

 

That’s it. Now its the time to configure your vCenter server for AD authentication via the PSC and all other post install config tasks as required.

Cheers

Chan

2. VMware vSphere 6.x – Platform Service Controller Deployment

<- Index page – VMware vSphere 6.x Deployment Process

Following on from the previous article, lets now look at how we go about carrying out a typical enterprise deployment of vSphere 6 and first up is the deployment of PSC. (note that normally, the 1st thing to do is to deploy ESXi but since the ESXi deployment with 6.x is pretty much the same as its 2 previous iterations, I’m going to skip it, assuming that its somewhat mainstream knowledge now)

Given below are the main deployment steps involved in deploying the Platform Service Controller. Note the below notes regarding the PSC design being deployed here.

  • Single, external PSC appliance will be deployed with 2 vCenter server appliances associated with it (topology 2 of the recommended deployment topologies listed here by VMware) as this is likely going to be the most popular deployment model for most people.
  • Lot of people may wonder why no resiliency for PSC here. While PSC can be deployed behind a load balancer for HA, its a bit of an overkill, especially with vSphere 6.0 Update 1 which now supports pointing an existing vCenter Server to another PSC node if its in the same SSO domain. For more information, see this priceless article by William Lam @ VMware which also shows how you can automate this manual repointing if need be.

Lets take a look at the PSC appliance deployment steps

  1. Download the VMware vCSA appliance ISO from VMware and mount the ISO image on you workstation / jump host and launch the vcsa-setup.html file found on the root of the ISO drive. Since this has not specifically been mentioned, it should be noted that the PSC appliance deployment is part of the same vCenter Server Appliance (vCSA) but during the deployment, you specify you only want PSC services deployed) 1
  2. Now click install.                                                   2
  3. Accept EULA and next                                                  3. Ack
  4. You can deploy the appliance directly to an ESXi host or deploy through a vCenter. Provide your target server details here with credentials.  4. ESXi
  5. Type the appliance’s VM name & root password for the appliance’s Linux OS. Make a note as you’d need this later. 5. PSC01
  6. Select the appropriate deployment type. We are using the external PSC here.    6. External psc mode
  7. We are creating a new SSO domain here so provide the required details here. 7. SSO details
  8. Appliance size is not modifiable here as we’ve selected the PSC mode earlier (where the size is same for all).  8. PSC Appliance Size
  9. Select the destination datastore to deploy the PSC appliance on to.  9. PSC Disk Mode
  10. Now provide the IP & DNS details. Ensue you provide a valid NTP server and check that the time syncs properly from this source.
    1. Ensure the DNS entries are manually added to the AD for PSC before proceeding with this step as the PSC deployment may return errors if the FQDN cannot be resolved correctly.  10. PSC Network
  11. Review the deployment settings and click finish to proceed with the appliance deployment. 11. Summary
  12. Deployment progress and completion                                                                            12. Progress 13. Completion
  13. Once complete, ensure you can connect to the PSC web page using the URL http://<PSC FQDN>/websso 14 Verification
  14. You can also connect to the appliance configuration page using the port 5480 as is the case with most VMware products that ships as appliances. The URL is http://<FQDN of the PSC appliance>:5480 and the credentials are root and the password specified during deployment earlier. 15. ILO

Optional – Replace the VMCA root certificate

This is only required if you have an enterprise CA hierarchy already in place within your organisation, such as a Microsoft CA. However, if you are a WINTEL house, I would highly recommend that you deploy a Microsoft Enterprise CA using Windows Server as it is quite useful for many use cases, including automation tasks involved with XaaS platforms. (i.e. Running vRO workflows to create an Active Directory user cannot happen without an LDAPS connection for which the Domain Controllers need to have a valid certificate….etc.). So, if you have an Enterprise CA, you should make the PSC a subordinate certificate authority by replacing its default root cert with a valid cert from the Enterprise CA.
Note that this should ideally happen before deploying the vCenter server appliance, in order to keep the process simple.
  1. To do this, follow the steps listed out in this VMware KB 2111219, under the section “Replacing VMCA of the Platform Services Controller with a Subordinate Certificate Authority Certificate” (To be specific, if your deployment is greenfield and you are following my order of component deployment, which means vCenter server has not yet been deployed, ONLY follow the first 3 steps listed under the “Replacing VMCA of the Platform Service Controller with a subordinate Certificate Authority Certificate” section.  I’ve listed them below FYI.
    1. Creating a Microsoft Certificate Authority Template for SSL certificate creation in vSphere 6.0 (2112009)
    2. Configuring vSphere 6.0 VMware Certificate Authority as a subordinate Certificate Authority (2112016)
    3. Obtaining vSphere certificates from a Microsoft Certificate Authority (2112014)
  2. DO NOT follow the rest of the steps yet (unless you already have a vCenter server attached to the PSC) as they are NOT YET required.

 

PSC configuration

There is not much to configure on PSC at this stage as the SSO configuration and integration with AD will be done at a later stage, once the vCenter Server Appliances have also been deployed with the vCenter Server service.

 

There you have it. Your PSC appliance is now deployed and the default VMCA root certificate is also replaced with a subordinate certificate from your existing enterprise CA, so that your VMware vSphere components that receive a cert from VMCA will have the full organisational cert chain, all the way from the enterprise root CA cert, to the VMCA issued cert.

Next, we’ll look at the VCSA appliance deployment and configuration.

 

1. VMware vSphere 6.x – Deployment Architecture Key Notes

<-Home Page for VMware vSphere 6.x articles

First thing to do in a vSphere 6.x deployment is to understand the new deployment architecture options available on the vSphere 6.0 platform, which is somewhat different from the previous versions of vSphere. The below will highlight key information but is not a complete guide to all the changes..etc. For that I’d advise you to refer to the official vSphere documentation (found here)

Deployment Architecture

The deployment architecture for vSphere 6 is somewhat different from the legacy versions. I’m not going to document all of the architectural deference’s  (Please refer to the VMware product documentation for vSphere 6) but I will mention few of the key ones which I think are important, in a bullet point below.

  • vCenter Server – Consist of 2 key components
    • Platform Service Controller (PSC)
      • PSC include the following components
        • SSO
        • vSphere Licensing Server
        • VMCA – VMware Certificate Authority (a built in SSL certification authority to simply certificate provisioning to all VMware products including vCenter, ESXi, vRealize Automation….etc. The idea is you associate this to your existing enterprise root CA or a subordinate CA such as a Microsoft CA and point all VMware components at this.)
      • PSC can be deployed as an appliance or on a windows machine
    • vCenter Server
      • Appliance (vCSA) – Include the following services
        • vCenter Inventory server
        • PostgreSQL
        • vSphere Web Client
        • vSphere ESXi Dump collector
        • Syslog collector
        • Syslog Service
        • Auto Deploy
      • Windows version is also available.

Note: ESXi remains the same as before without any significant changes to its core architecture or the installation process.

Deployment Options

What’s in red below are the deployment options that I will be using in the subsequent sections to deploy vSphere 6 u1 as they represent the likely choices adopted during most of the enterprise deployments.

  • Platform Services Controller Deployment
    • Option 1 – Embedded with vCenter
      • Only suitable for small deployments
    • Option 2 – External – Dedicated separate deployment of PSC to which external vCenter(s) will connect to
      • Single PSC instance or a clustered PSC deployment consisting of multiple instances is supported
      • 2 options supported here.
        • Deploy an external PSC on Windows
        • Deploy an external PSC using the Linux based appliance (note that this option involves deploying the same vCSA appliance but during deployment, select the PSC mode rather than vCenter)
    • PSC need to be deployed first, followed by vCenter deployment as concurrent deployment of both are NOT supported!
  • vCenter Server Deployment – vCenter Deployment architecture consist of 2 choices
    • Windows deployment
      • Option 1: with a built in Postgre SQL
        • Only supported for a small – medium sized environment (20 hosts or 200VMs)
      • Option 2: with an external database system
        • Only external database system supported is Oracle (no more SQL databases for vCenter)
      • This effectively mean that you are now advised (indirectly, in my view) to always deploy the vCSA version as opposed to the Windows version of vCenter, especially since the feature parity between vCSA and Windows vCenter versions are now bridged
    • vCSA (appliance) deployment
      • Option 1: with a built in Postgre SQL DB
        • Supported for up to 1000 hosts and 10,000 VMs (This I reckon would be the most common deployment model now for vCSA due to the supported scalability and the simplicity)
      • Option 2: with an external database system
        • As with the Windows version, only Oracle is supported as an external DB system

PSC and vCenter deployment topologies

Certificate Concerns

  • VMCA is a complete Certificate Authority for all vSphere and related components where the vSphere related certificate issuing process is automated (happens automatically during adding vCenter servers to PSC & adding ESXi servers to vCenter).
  • For those who already have a Microsoft CA or a similar enterprise CA, the recommendation is to make the VMCA a subordinate CA so that all certificates allocated from VMCA to all vSphere components will have the full certificate chain, all the way from your Microsoft root CA(i.e. Microsoft Root CA cert->Subordinate CA cert->VMCA Root CA cert->Allocated cert, for the vSphere components).
  • In order to achieve this, the following steps need to be followed in the listed order.
    • Install the PSC / Deploy the PSC appliance first
    • Use an existing root / enterprise CA (i.e. Microsoft CA) to generate a subordinate CA certificate for the VMCA and replace the default VMCA root certificate on the PSC.
      • To achieve this, follow the VMware KB articles listed here.
      • Once the certificate replacement is complete on the PSC, do follow the “Task 0” outlined here to ensure that the vSphere service registrations with the VMware lookup service are also update. If not, you’ll have to follow the “Task 1 – 4” to manually update the sslTrust parameter value for the service registration using the ls_update_certs.py script (available on the PSC appliance). Validating this here can save you lots of headache down the line.
    • Now Install vCenter & point at the PSC for SSO (VMCA will automatically allocate appropriate certificates)
    • Add ESXi hosts (VMCA will automatically allocate appropriate certificates)

Key System Requirements

  • ESXi system requirements
    • Physical components
      • Need a minimum of 2 CPU cores per host
      • HCL compatibility (CPU released after sept 2006 only)
      • NX/SD bit enabled in BIOS
      • Intel VT-x enabled
      • SATA disks will be considered remote (meaning, no scratch partition on SATA)
    • Booting
      • Booting from UEFI is supported
      • But no auto deploy or network booting with UEFI
    • Local Storage
      • Disks
        • Recommended for booting from local disk is 5.2GB (for VMFS and the 4GB scratch partition)
        • Supported minimum is 1GB
          • Scratch partition created on another local disk or RAMDISK (/tmp/ramdisk) – Not recommended to be left on ramdisk for performance & memory optimisation
      • USB / SD
        • Installer DOES NOT create scratch on these drives
        • Either creates the scratch partition on another local disk or ramdisk
        • 4GB or larger recommended (though min supported is 1GB)
          • Additional space used for the core dump
        • 16GB or larger is highly recommended
          • Prolongs the flash cell life
  • vCenter Server System Requirements
    • Windows version
      • Must be connected to a domain
      • Hardware
        • PSC – 2 cpu / 2GB RAM
        • Tiny environment (10 hosts / 100 VM- 2 cpu / 8GB RAM
        • Small (100 hosts / 1000 VMs) – 4 cpus / 16GB RAM
        • Medium (400 hosts / 400 VMs) – 8cpus / 24GB RAM
        • Large (1000 hosts / 10000 VMs) – 16 cpus / 32GB RAM
    • Appliance version
      • Virtual Hardware
        • PSC- 2 cpu / 2GB RAM
        • Tiny environment (10 hosts / 100 VM- 2 cpu / 8GB RAM
        • Small (100 hosts / 1000 VMs) – 4 cpus / 16GB RAM
        • Medium (400 hosts / 400 VMs) – 8cpus / 24GB RAM
        • Large (1000 hosts / 10000 VMs) – 16 cpus / 32GB RAM

In the next post, we’ll look at the key deployment steps involved.